Authorities came across the severely malnourished baby when they responded to a domestic incident on Saturday night.
“Officers were so concerned for the well-being of the baby they immediately called NSW Ambulance paramedics to the scene,” NSW Police said in a statement.
The baby was rushed to Albury Base Hospital.
His mother was charged with failing to provide for a child causing danger of death.
She was granted bail and will appear in Albury Local Court next week.
The baby and his siblings, a 17-month-old boy and a seven-year-old girl, have been taken into care.